Site investigations or subsurface explorations are done for obtaining the information about subsurface conditions at the site of proposed construction. Site investigations in one form or the other is generally required for every big civil engineering project. Information about the surface and sub-surface features is essential for the design of structures and for planning construction techniques.
Site investigation consists of determining the profile of the natural soil deposits at the site, taking the soil samples and determining the engineering properties of the soils. It also includes in-situ testing of the soils.
Why Site Investigation is Done
Site investigations are generally done to obtain the information that is useful for one or more of the following purposes:
- To select the type and depth of foundation for a given structure.
- To determine the bearing capacity of the soil.
- To estimate the probable maximum and differential settlements.
- To establish the ground water level and to determine the properties of water.
- To predict the lateral earth pressure against retaining walls and abutments.
- To select suitable construction techniques.
- To predict and to solve potential foundation problems.
- To ascertain the suitability of the soil as a construction material.
- To investigate the safety of the existing structures and to suggest the remedial measures.