Linear surveying involves measurement of distances between points on the surface of the earth. There are various methods of linear surveying and their relative merit depends upon the degree of precision (accuracy) required. Methods of Linear Surveying Linear surveying methods can be broadly divided into three heads: Direct measurement Measurement by optical means Electronic methods Direct […]

## Why Errors in Surveying Take Place | Types of Error That Occurs During Survey

Surveying Errors Errors in surveying may arise from three main sources: 1. Instrumental: Surveying error may arise due to imperfection or faulty adjustment of the instrument with which measurement is being taken. For example, a tape may be too long or an angle measuring instrument may be out of adjustment. Such errors are known as instrumental […]

## Terms Used to Define Errors in Surveying | Understanding Surveying Errors

Errors in Surveying occurs as survey work involves various measurement of angles and distances in the field. In dealing with measurements in surveying and the associated surveying errors, the following terms should be carefully studied. Terms Used For Errors in Surveying Observation In surveying, observation is defined as the numerical value of a quantity measured […]

## Stages of Survey Operations

The entire work stages of survey operation in civil engineering may be divided into the following three stages: Field work Office work Care and adjustment of instruments Field Work The field work consists of the measurement of all the necessary horizontal and vertical distances, horizontal and vertical angles, elevations, etc. and keeping a systematic record […]

## Survey Scales : Types of Survey Scales Used in Surveying Drawings

Since the area that is surveyed is vast, it is never possible to make the drawings to full size, and therefore, drawings of an area are made to a smaller scale. The operation is generally known as drawing to scale. Types of survey scales can be represented by the following two methods: Numerical scales Graphical […]

## Classification of Survey

Classification of surveys can be done from different angles of view. According to the use and the purpose of the prepared maps, surveys may be classified under the following three different heads. Classification based upon the nature of the field Classification based on the purpose of the survey Classification based on instruments used Classification of […]

## Difference Between Plane Surveying and Geodetic Surveying

We have discussed about plane surveying and geodetic surveying before in another articles. Plane Surveying Geodetic Surveying Plane Surveying and Geodetic Surveying Five major differences between plane surveying and geodetic surveying are given below. Plane surveying Geodetic surveying Effect of the curvature of the earth surface is ignored. The earth surface is assumed to be plane, […]

## Geodetic Surveying – Definition and Classification

Geodetic surveying is the survey in which the curvature of the earth is taken into account and higher degree of accuracy in linear and angular observations is achieved. The geodetic surveys extend over large areas and lines connecting any two points on the surface of the earth are treated as arcs. For calculating their projected distances on the […]

## Plane Surveying | Methods of Surveying

Plane surveying is the survey in which the earth surface is assumed to be plane and the curvature of the earth is ignored. The plane surveys extend only over small areas and the lines connecting any two points on the surface of the earth are treated as straight lines and the angles between such lines are taken […]