Errors in Surveying occurs as survey work involves various measurement of angles and distances in the field. In dealing with measurements in surveying and the associated surveying errors, the following terms should be carefully studied. Terms Used For Errors in Surveying Observation In surveying, observation is defined as the numerical value of a quantity measured […]

## Stages of Survey Operations

The entire work stages of survey operation in civil engineering may be divided into the following three stages: Field work Office work Care and adjustment of instruments Field Work The field work consists of the measurement of all the necessary horizontal and vertical distances, horizontal and vertical angles, elevations, etc. and keeping a systematic record […]

## Survey Scales : Types of Survey Scales Used in Surveying Drawings

Since the area that is surveyed is vast, it is never possible to make the drawings to full size, and therefore, drawings of an area are made to a smaller scale. The operation is generally known as drawing to scale. Types of survey scales can be represented by the following two methods: Numerical scales Graphical […]

## Classification of Survey

Classification of surveys can be done from different angles of view. According to the use and the purpose of the prepared maps, surveys may be classified under the following three different heads. Classification based upon the nature of the field Classification based on the purpose of the survey Classification based on instruments used Classification of […]

## Difference Between Plane Surveying and Geodetic Surveying

We have discussed about plane surveying and geodetic surveying beforeĀ in another articles. Plane Surveying Geodetic Surveying Plane Surveying and Geodetic Surveying Five major differences between plane surveying and geodetic surveying are given below. Plane surveying Geodetic surveying Effect of the curvature of the earth surface is ignored. The earth surface is assumed to be plane, […]

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